Scientific experiments are of essential importance in people's surviving and exploring of nature.  Experiments are performed almost everywhere, usually for the purpose of discovering something about a particular process and for the development of a new process.  It is usually expected that the experiment could result in increase of the yield, improvement in the quality, reduction of the development time or reduction of the overall costs.

When the experimenter wants to investigate more factors (for instances, more than 4 factros) in an experiment one cannot expect to obtain a good result without the use of modern experimental designs. For example, suppose that the experimenter wants to consider various reacting temperature, time, presusure, speed and several materials in an experiment. Choose five testing levels for each of the factors. The total of level-combinations is 55=3125, that is too many in the sense of experimental experse and time. How can we use a small number of experiments to explore relationships between the response (output) and the factors (inputs)? We need some efficient fractional factorial designs. If we use the so-called orthogonal design, the number of experiments can be reduced to 25.

The Uniform design is another such efficient fractional factorial design. It was proposed by Professor Fang Kai-Tai and Professor Wang Yuan in 1980. It has been successfully used in various fields such as chemistry and chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, quality engineering, system engineering, survey design, computer sciences and natural sciences. The uniform design has been recoginized as an important space-filling design by the internatinal community. The space-filling design has played an important role in large system engineering.  The uniform design is also one of the robust designs.


List of Publications


UD Tables



Centered L2


Centered L2, Centered L2 for large table,


Wrap around L2

n = number of runs, s = number of factors, q = number of levels

By Kai-Tai Fang, Chang-Xing Ma, Dietmar Maringer, Yu Tang and Peter Winker.
  • Selected papers for the construction of Uniform Design tables


    The Uniform Design Association of China




    Oct 1999

    Symposium on Theory of Uniform Design and Its Application

    Nov 2003

    2003 Symposium on the Uniform Experimential Design

    Aug 2005



    Updated by: Kenny Yeung
    Last Updated: 14-10-2004